Study on fire risk analysis and fire fighting Coun

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Research on fire risk analysis and fire fighting Countermeasures of ships in water areas

in recent years, with the development of shipping industry, the number of ship fires in China has increased year by year, and the fire losses are also increasing. Nantong, Jiangsu Province, as a bright pearl on the Yangtze River, has developed water transportation. With the development of economy, the number of ships passing through Nantong waters has increased year by year, and ship fires have occurred from time to time. While the fire risk of ships is becoming increasingly prominent, the fire fighting force that undertakes the fire fighting task in Nantong waters is still very weak and lacks the corresponding rescue capacity. It is of great significance to carry out the research on the countermeasures against ship fires in Nantong waters. Based on this, the author has conducted in-depth investigation and Research on the characteristics and fire fighting forces of ship fires that may occur in Nantong waters, and mastered relevant data. Based on the investigation, this paper introduces the relevant laws of ship fires in detail, analyzes the fire fighting forces in Nantong waters, and discusses the firefighting countermeasures, action points and precautions of various ship fires

1. Ship fire law

1.1 classification of ships

the first week of November every year is regarded as the "Green Express Publicity Week". Ships are floating buildings and economic entities on the water, with the advantages of high tonnage, large passenger (cargo) capacity, fast speed, long endurance and so on. There are hundreds of types of ships, including transportation, engineering, fisheries, marine development, port administration, warships, etc. according to their purposes, among which the most widely used transportation ships are divided into passenger and cargo ships, container ships, liquefied gas ships, passenger ships, etc

1.2 ship characteristics related to fire protection

1.2.1 there are many combustible substances

in the cabin of modern ships for living and work, its bulkheads, decks, ceilings, etc. are made of plywood, PVC board, polyurethane foam, chemical fiber and other combustible materials, and some indoor furniture, carpets, curtains, beds, etc. are also made of combustible materials. Therefore, the fire load is quite large

1.2.2 large cargo and passenger capacity

ordinary cargo ships have a load of 10000 tons, bulk cargo ships have a load of 10000 tons, oil tankers and liquefied petroleum gas ships generally have a load of 10000 tons, with a maximum of 500000 tons. Passenger ships usually carry hundreds to 2000 passengers

1.2.3 large fuel oil reserves

among various means of transportation, ships have the largest fuel oil reserves. Ships mainly use gasoline, diesel oil and heavy oil, as well as fuel for auxiliary machinery and other machinery and equipment, as well as a lot of lubricating oil. The fuel oil reserves of ocean going ships above 10000 tons, especially those of ocean going ships, are 10% of the ship's deadweight. For example, the fuel oil reserves of a 100000 ton cargo ship are 8000 to 12000 tons, which is equivalent to a small oil depot

1.2.4 strong heat conductivity

the hull is made of steel plate, and its heat conductivity is relatively strong. Five minutes after the fire, when the temperature can rise to 500-900 ℃, the steel plate is quickly heated and becomes a material with high thermal conductivity, which is very easy to ignite the combustible materials adjacent to or close to the hull, thereby expanding the fire. (under the condition of fire development, the average temperature in the living and service spaces is ℃, in the engine room, and in the cargo oil tank is as high as 1100 ℃. When the temperature is ℃, the aluminum alloy components of the ship melt, and when the temperature is greater than 900 ℃, the copper parts will also be damaged.)

1.2.5 complex structure

due to the limitation of hull size, the ship structure is relatively compact and complex. There are dozens of cabins for different purposes and many ventilation holes and stairs on a 10000 ton cargo tanker; In fact, the passages and stairs in the cabin are relatively narrow, especially in terms of conductivity, which has exceeded that of silver. Most ship doors and exits can only accommodate one person. There are many types of ships with different structures, and the distribution of cabins and machinery and equipment is also different. Under fire conditions, it is difficult for combatants to understand the situation, which affects combat operations

1.3 characteristics of ship fire

ship fire integrates high-rise (floor), underground, high-temperature, dense smoke and toxic fire extinguishing environment. It has the difficulties of fire in chemical industry, oil tank (pool), warehouse, residence and densely populated places. In addition, fire fighting needs to enter on water and is convenient for users. Therefore, ship fire fighting has the characteristics of great difficulty, loss and impact

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